For details see Charanjit Kaur “The Sikh Sangat An Early El elementary Educational Institution published in The Sikh Review Calcutta Sept. 1991 pp.9-17.

Guru Amar Das was a very enthusiastic preacher. He would go about to villages to deliver the message of Guru Nanak and obtain converts to his followers in creased so large that he found i necessary to organize the work to teaching preaching and administering to their spiritual wan Consequently he divided the whole country under his influence into 22 dioceses or Manjit and placed at the head of each a pious and influential Sikh who acted as Bishop or Vice gerent of the Guru Teja Singh Ganda Singh A Short History of the Sikhs (Bombay 1950) p27  fn.1.

Mohsin Fani Dabistan. Mazahi (compiled around 1645 AD) text Nawal Kishore Press Kanpur 1904 English translation by David Shea and Antony Troyer (London 1843) p.233

Indu Bhushan Banerjee Evolution of the Khalsa (Calcutta 1970). Ibid p.261

According to Sikh sources the Guru received substantial income from the Sangat at Kabul The beautiful horses that afterwards became the cause of collision between   Hargobind and the Imperialists are stated to be presents from a Masand at Kabul We are told in the Sikh sources how Sujan a Masand from Kabul amassed for the Guru great wealth from the offerings. M.A. Macauliffe. The Sikh Religion Its Gurus Sacred Writings and Authors (Oxford 1909) Vol. 1V p38

Guru Hargobind was the first among the Sikh Gurus who was taught the use of offensive and defensive weapons besides riding hunting wrestling and many other sports. Under Bhai Buddha’s training Hargobind soon grew up to be an all-round warrior a healthy and strong man as well as saintly and enlightened. Kavi Sohan the biographer of Guru Hargobind refers to military education imparted to the Guru: Shastar Shastar Ki vidya pai Hargobind man at harkhai Kavi Sohan Gurbilas Patshahi-6 Chapter iii shalok 74

Hukamnamas din duties likhair Sri Guru Desan Des Pathai Aise bachan ya men likhe Bhe tShasiar hai liyai. Kavi Sohan op. cit  Chapte viii Shalokas 22-24

For details about the Udasis see Charanjit Kaur Education in Punjab from 1707 to 1849 A.D. A. Critical Study Ph.D. These Himachal Pradesh University Shimla 1989 (Unpublished) pp. 200-208.

Teja Singh Sikhism Its ideals and Institutions (Bombay 1937)PB.

Find a Bhushan Banerjee op city Voll p48.

Sikh records refer to a few recalcitrant Masands who look over the side of har Rai and declared him the Guru.

The Chief conspirator in this episode was a Masand named Gurdas. M.A Macauliffe opposite WV pais.

Gokal Chand Narang Transformation of Sikhism (Delhi e print 1972)p.73. The situation deteriorated to such an extent that one of the Masands named Sihan even made an attempt on the life of Guru Tegh Bahadur M.A. Macauliffe op. cit IV p334.

It is said that one day a company of mimes came to the Gurus court The Guru asked them to imitate the Masands. One of them accordingly dressed as a Masand and two as Masands servants and a fourth person as Masands courtesan riding behind him on a horseback. as he went to collect offerings for the Guru The mimes portrayed to life the villainies and: oppression practices by the Masands. M.A. Macauliffe op.cit IV p.89; See also Indu Bhusan Banerjee op. cit Il p.110

M.A.Macauliffe op. cit V Patshahi Dasvin (Lahore nd.) p34.

Khushwant Singh A History of the Sikhs (Delhi 1977) p.82 Indu. Bhushan Banerjee op. Cit Ip.111; J.s .Grewal and S.S.Bal Guni Gobind Singh (Chandigarh 1967) pp.1141. in the Akhbarat-i-Darbar-Mohalla Jaipur (Khalsa Collage Amritsar

SHR. 530-b) the removal of Masands is also mentioned as a most important measure of Guru Gobind Singh. Cited in Grewal and Bal.opt p27 fn. 29% See  Gur Sobha of Senapati ed. Ganda Singh Amritsar 1925 Senapati was contemporary and. Court [poet of Guru Gobind Singh).



Article extracted from this publication >> May 8, 1996