* Ranjit Singh did not derive his title from either the Mughals or the Afghans; it was given to him by that mystic entity, the Panth Khalsa. He acknowledged no earthly superior. He was impelled by the weight of tradition that had grown up over the years that it was the destiny of the Sikhs to rule (Raj Kare Ga Khalsa) and that perhaps he had been chosen by the Gurus to be the instrument of their inscrutable design. With this assurance Ranjit Singh was able to harness the dynamic energies of his people and with a clear conscience launched himself on a career of conquest and annexation.

* Ahmad Shah Abdali had invaded Punjab so many times and spilled so much Sikh blood but finally Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s Forces defeated Afghans in the Battle of Attock in July 1813. The Afghans broke ranks and fled, leaving over two thousand of their comrades dead on the field and all their heavy guns and equipment. It was the first victory the Sikhs have ever won over the Afghans and the Pathans. Attock had been in foreign hands since 1002 A.D: Its recapture meant the liberation of Northern India from the Pathan and Afghan menace. The conquest of Multan on June 2, 1818 ended Afghan influence in Punjab. The battle of Shupariyan was fought in the early hours of the morning of July 2, 1819 and finally the Khalsa captured Kashmir from the Afghans. Peshawar was captured in November, 1819. The victories in Kashmir, Pashawar, and Multan were celebrated by naming three newborn princes after them: Prince Kashmira Singh, Peshaura Singh and Multan Singh.

Article extracted from this publication >>  February 20, 1987